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Daniel Fedoseev
Daniel Fedoseev

1944 - La Battaglia Di Cassino



Film che non è in grado di trasmettere emozioni, sembrano una manciata di ragazzini che vanno a fare una partita di soft air, attori da 4 soldi.Mi aspettavo un film sulla storia di Montecassino, invece mi ritrovo a guardare una barzelletta




1944 - La battaglia di Cassino



Nell'inverno 1943 / 1944, le truppe alleate impegnate nella Campagna d'Italia sono attestate a sud della Linea Gustav. Nell'area di Cassino, un plotone di soldati americani è inviato in ricognizione oltre la linea del fronte. Le insidie del luogo portano alla morte di alcuni componenti del gruppo, mentre freddo, solitudine, la paura di un nemico sempre in agguato, ed i sensi di colpa causati dall'uccisione di una donna italiana trovata in compagnia di un ufficiale tedesco, ne fiaccano lo spirito. Uno film di guerra meno realistici che abbia visto negli ultimi anni; ammetto, da appassionato del genere, di avere un occhio particolarmente critico, ed, essendo italiano, sono in grado di riconoscere eventuali incongruenze nella ricostruzione di località della nostra nazione. Ma alcuni dettagli non possono sfuggire. I personaggi del film se ne vanno in giro chiacchierando e discutendo con concitazione in un teatro bellico spopolato e silenzioso, con quasi nessun elemento che ricordi i combattimenti in atto. Nessun colpo d'artiglieria, nessun movimento di truppe visibile tra colline innevate e coperte da macchie boschive di conifere (in quella che dovrebbe essere la bassa Ciociaria ? Mah). Qua e là un cadavere, una mina, un gruppo di tedeschi impegnati in esecuzioni sommarie ci ricordano il contesto; un anziano italiano è catturato e costretto a guidare il drappello. L'uomo, dolente e silenzioso, fa quanto gli viene detto, ed offre un argomento di conversazione ai militari americani, che s'interrogano costantemente sulle sue idee politiche e se sia il caso fidarsi di lui. Nel frattempo, altri uomini, pare anch'essi italiani, intralciano la marcia della pattuglia, più per fame che per ideologia. Il protagonista, presente all'uccisione della donna ad inizio racconto, diventa in pochi giorni pienamente consapevole dell'orrore della guerra e, nell'epilogo, portata comunque a compimento la missione, evita di commettere un ennesimo atto di violenza. Una "conversione" quanto mai rapida e decisamente poco realistica, anche se il film sembrerebbe ispirato ad una storia vera. Circa le interpretazioni, c'è poco da dire. I personaggi sono stereotipati e poco approfonditi; poteva mancare un ebreo nel gruppo ? Meno peggiore degli altri l'enigmatico italiano (interpretato da un ombroso Franco Nero che sembra voler dire ... guarda cosa tocca fare per vivere), il cui ruolo nella vicenda rimane incerto - ma sarà fascista ? Sarà un collaborazionista ? Sarà un ex-militare ? O uno dei tanti disgraziati risucchiati nel tritacarne bellico ? Boh. Traspare il tentativo di creare un'atmosfera; un nemico invisibile, un ambiente ostile, la tensione che cresce. Ma non per lo spettatore, letteralmente travolto dal chiacchiericcio dei soldati, che si dirada solo a causa delle evitabilissime morti di alcuni di loro. Traspare, altresì, la volontà moralizzatrice del regista; ma di opere contro la guerra ce ne sono di ogni genere, età e qualità. Questa non offre alcun nuovo apporto al tema. Spiace dover stroncare così quello che è, dopotutto, frutto di ingegno e lavoro. Ma questo film non solo è noioso, prevedibile e male interpretato; nonostante mostri velleità di attinenza alla realtà, fornisce l'interpretazione di un contesto storico ed ambientale che non trova corrispondenza in essa, rischiando di portare sulla cattiva strada uno spettatore in buona fede.


At the beginning of 1944, the western half of the Winter Line was anchored by German forces holding the Rapido-Gari, Liri, and Garigliano valleys and several of the surrounding peaks and ridges. Together, these features formed the Gustav Line. Monte Cassino, a historic hilltop abbey founded in 529 by Benedict of Nursia, dominated the nearby town of Cassino and the entrances to the Liri and Rapido valleys. Lying in a protected historic zone, it had been left unoccupied by the Germans, although they manned some positions set into the slopes below the abbey's walls.


Repeated artillery attacks on assaulting allied troops caused their leaders to incorrectly conclude that the abbey was being used by the Germans as an observation post, at the very least. Fears escalated, along with casualties, and in spite of evidence, it was marked for destruction. On 15 February 1944, Allied bombers dropped 1,400 tonnes of high explosives, causing widespread damage.[5] Fallschirmjäger forces then occupied the area and established defensive positions amid the ruins.


The plan of the Fifth Army commander, Lieutenant General Clark, was for the British X Corps, under Lieutenant General Richard McCreery, on the left of a thirty-kilometer (20 mi) front, to attack on 17 January 1944, across the Garigliano near the coast (5th and 56th Infantry Divisions). The British 46th Infantry Division was to attack on the night of 19 January across the Garigliano below its junction with the Liri in support of the main attack by U.S. II Corps, under Major General Geoffrey Keyes, on their right. The main central thrust by the U.S. II Corps would commence on 20 January with the U.S. 36th Infantry Division making an assault across the swollen Gari river five miles (8.0 km) downstream of Cassino. Simultaneously, the French Expeditionary Corps (CEF) led by General Alphonse Juin would continue its "right hook" move towards Monte Cairo, the hinge to the Gustav and Hitler defensive lines. In truth, Clark did not believe there was much chance of an early breakthrough,[13] but he felt that the attacks would draw German reserves away from the Rome area in time for the attack on Anzio (codenamed Operation Shingle) where the U.S. VI Corps (British 1st and U.S. 3rd Infantry Divisions, the 504th Parachute Regimental Combat Team, U.S. Army Rangers and British Commandos, Combat Command 'B' of the U.S. 1st Armored Division, along with supporting units), under Major General John P. Lucas, was due to make an amphibious landing on 22 January. It was hoped that the Anzio landing, with the benefit of surprise and a rapid move inland to the Alban Hills, which command both routes 6 and 7, would so threaten the Gustav defenders' rear and supply lines that it might just unsettle the German commanders and cause them to withdraw from the Gustav Line to positions north of Rome. Whilst this would have been consistent with the German tactics of the previous three months, Allied intelligence had not understood that the strategy of fighting retreat had been for the sole purpose of providing time to prepare the Gustav line where the Germans intended to stand firm. The intelligence assessment of Allied prospects was therefore over-optimistic.[14]


On 11 February 1944, the acting commander of the 4th Indian Division, Brigadier General Dimoline, requested a bombing raid. Tuker reiterated his case again from a hospital bed in Caserta, where he was suffering a severe attack of a recurrent tropical fever. Freyberg transmitted his request on 12 February. The request, however, was greatly expanded by air force planners and probably supported by Eaker and Devers, who sought to use the opportunity to showcase the abilities of U.S. Army air power to support ground operations.[32] Clark and his chief of staff, Major General Alfred Gruenther, remained unconvinced of the "military necessity". When handing over the U.S. II Corps position to the New Zealand Corps, Brigadier General J.A. Butler, deputy commander of the U.S. 34th Division, said, "I don't know, but I don't believe the enemy is in the convent. All the fire has been from the slopes of the hill below the wall".[33] Finally, Clark, "who did not want the monastery bombed",[34] pinned down the Commander-in-Chief Allied Armies in Italy, Alexander, to take the responsibility: "I said, 'You give me a direct order and we'll do it,' and he did."[35]


The bombing mission in the morning of 15 February 1944 involved 142 Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers, followed by 47 North American B-25 Mitchell and 40 Martin B-26 Marauder medium bombers. In all, they dropped 1,150 tonnes of high explosives and incendiary bombs on the abbey, reducing the entire summit of Monte Cassino to a smoking mass of rubble. Between bomb runs, the II Corps artillery pounded the mountain.[36] Many Allied soldiers and war correspondents cheered as they observed the spectacle. Eaker and Devers watched; Juin was heard to remark, "no, they'll never get anywhere this way."[37] Clark and Gruenther refused to be on the scene and stayed at their headquarters. That same afternoon and the next day, an aggressive follow-up of artillery and a raid by 59 fighter bombers wreaked further destruction. The German positions on Point 593 above and behind the monastery were untouched.[38]


The capture of Monte Cassino came at a high price. The Allies suffered around 55,000 casualties in the Monte Cassino campaign. German casualty figures are estimated at around 20,000 killed and wounded.[3] Total Allied casualties spanning the period of the four Cassino battles and the Anzio campaign, with the subsequent capture of Rome on 5 June 1944, were over 105,000.[78]


The town of Cassino was completely razed by the air and artillery bombardments (especially by the air raid of 15 March 1944, when 1,250 tonnes of bombs were dropped on the town[79]), and 2,026 of its prewar population of 20,000 were killed during the raids and the battle.[80]


In the course of the battles, the ancient abbey of Monte Cassino, where St. Benedict in AD 516 first established the Rule that ordered monasticism in the west, was entirely destroyed by Allied bombing and artillery barrages in February 1944.[nb 3]


La battaglia di Cassino infuriò ferocemente a partire dal 17 gennaio 1944 impegnando, nei quattro mesi successivi, i reparti alleati intenti a risalire l'Italia e a respingere le forze tedesche che dalla resa del governo Badoglio del settembre 1943 ne occupavano una parte sostanziale. 041b061a72


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