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Cinnamomum Subavenium Buy High Quality

Leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium are an important spice.[1] It is also a Chinese herb that has been suggested for use as a skin whitening agent. The plant contains substances which inhibit production of tyrosinase an enzyme which catalyzes the production of melanin. The herb has not been established as either effective or safe but is being researched by Hui-Min Wang and his colleagues at Kaohsiung Medical University in Taiwan where experiments shown that it was effective at causing zebrafish to lose their stripes.[2]

cinnamomum subavenium buy

Tyrosinase is known to be the first two and rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of melanin pigments responsible for colouring skin, hair and eyes. Tyrosinase inhibition is one major strategy used to treat hyperpigmentation. In human skin melanocytes, the cellular tyrosinase inhibition was examined by the conversion of l-tyrosine and oxidation of l-DOPA to dopaquinone. We evaluated the skin pigmentation inhibitor effects with both in vitro and in vivo systems to find skin-whitening agents without cytotoxic concerns. First, linderanolide B and subamolide A were isolated from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium and exhibited mushroom tyrosinase inhibition. Then, these two herbal compounds were proved to have good pigmentation inhibitory abilities at low doses and demonstrated free cytotoxicities to normal human skin cells and zebrafish system. With molecular docking, in a virtual model of human tyrosinase, linderanolide B and subamolide A displayed meta(l) -coordinating interactions with Cu(2+) ions. The results obtained from biological assays showed that linderanolide B and subamolide A possessed anti-tyrosinase properties, which exhibited potential for application in medical cosmetology.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of three new butanolides, subamolides A - C (1-3), and a new secobutanolide, secosubamolide (4), on the human colorectal cancer cell line SW480. Compounds 1-4 are new and were isolated from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium, along with 17 known compounds. The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry were used to evaluate DNA damage of the treated SW480 cells, and it was found that 1-4 caused DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h of treatment.

Researchers in Taiwan recently reported that active ingredients derived from the evergreen bush Cinnamomum subavenium, provide safer and more effective skin lightening benefits than currently available treatments. It might just give new hope to individuals wanting treatment for Melasma, age spots and other hyperpigmentation disorders.

Researchers estimate that the chemicals from Cinnamomum subavenium are 100 times more effective than traditional skin lightening agents including kojic acid and arbutin. As well, they did not seem to have any toxic effects when tested in low doses on cultured human skin and zebrafish embryos. Patents have been applied for and a cream based on the active ingredients could be available in as little as a year.

The study determined the chemical constituents andanti-inflammatory effects of leaf oil from Cinnamomum subavenium (CS-LO) thathas been used in folk medicine to treat various symptoms includinginflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects of the oil were evaluated byLPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and the Carr-induced hind mouse paw edemamodel, respectively. In vitro, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2([PGE.sub.2]), TNF-[alpha], IL-6, and IL-1[beta] were significantly decreasedby CS-LO, and the expression of nuclear factor-[kappa]B (NF-[kappa]B) proteinwas blocked as well. In in vivo, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and paw edemalevels were decreased by CS-LO, and the same result came up on the NO andtumor necrosis factor (TNF-[alpha]) of serum at the 5th h after Carrinjection. In addition, iNOS and COX-2 immunoreactive cells of the paw tissuewere decreased significantly by CS-LO (200 mg/kg) in histologicalexamination. The present findings indicated that CS-LO have anti-inflammatoryproperties, and the effects might be caused through inhibiting iNOS, COX-2,TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta], and IL-6 expression via affecting NF-[kappa]Bpathway, which will provide a power scientific basis for CS-LO to be used asthe treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Cinnamomum subavenium. Miq. belong to lauraceae family, which arepopular in China, Malaysia, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Burma [6]. Its peel,fruit, and leaves have been used in folk medicine for treating stomachache,carcinomatous swelling, abdominal pain, chest pain, hernia, rheumatism,vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea [7]. Recently, researchers have reported thatC. subavenium has potent cytotoxic effects in some tumor cell lines,including urothelial carcinoma cells, colorectal cancer cells, skin cancermelanoma cells, human bladder cancer cells, human lung cancer cell, and humanprostate cancer cell lines [7-12]. Moreover, the leaf oil of C. subaveniumhas potent antioxidant and antimicrobial activities [13]. But, theanti-inflammatory activity of C. subavenium has not been report so far.Therefore, the objectives of our study were to investigate the major chemicalcomposition of leaf oil from C. subavenium using gas chromatography-massspectroscopy (GC-MS) and assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the leafoil from C. subavenium (CS-LO).

2.2. Plant Materials. Leaves of C. subavenium Miq were collectedfrom China and identified by Changgong Zhang (Huazhong University of Scienceand Technology). The voucher specimen (No. 2012-0610) has been deposited atthe Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and ResourceEvaluation, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong Universityof Science and Technology.

2.3. Preparation of CS-LO. 500 g fresh leaf of C. subavenium washydrodistilled for 4 h with a Clevenger-type apparatus. The collected oil,dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, was stored in brown vials at+4[degrees]C.

3.1. Chemical Composition of CS-LO. The essential oil was obtainedfrom the leaves of C. subavenium by steam distillation and then analyzed byGC-MS. 39 compounds were identified in the CS-LO (Table 1). The maincomponents included [beta]-cadinene (12.45%), [alpha]-muurolene (8.79%),chavicol (6.46%), citral (5.33%), cis-[beta]-ocimene (5.17%),[gamma]-muurolene (4.34%), bornyl acetate (4.15%), [alpha]-copaene (3.78%),linalool (3.31%), methyl cinnamate (3.28%), geraniol (3.31%), and3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (3.17%). Among the constituents, sesquiterpenoidsaccounted for the highest fraction at 45.52% of the total, monoterpenoidsaccounted for 36.82%, and the nonterpenoids group accounted for 15.06%.

Previous studies had demonstrated the bioactivity of the C.subavenium. For example, Wang et al. demonstrated the stems of C. subaveniumhad good pigmentation inhibitory abilities [12]. Cheng et al. found that theleaves and stems of C. subavenium had antioxidative activities [19]. Ho etal. reported that the leaf oils of C. subavenium had good antimicrobialactivities [13]. Chen et al. reported the extraction of C. subavenium leaveshad inhibition to various cancer cell lines [20]. So in this study, weanalyzed the leaf oil of C. subavenium by GC-MS, and anti-inflammatoryeffects with LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells and Carr-induced paw edema in mice.

In summary, CS-LO showed potent anti-inflammatory properties.These activities maybe due to the effects of minor components or synergeticeffects of the components. The current study also demonstrated that CS-LO notonly inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression and the subsequent production of NOand [PGE.sub.2] but also reduced the expression of IL-1[beta], IL-6, andTNF-[alpha] in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the inhibition of CS-LO wasrelated to inactivation of NF-[kappa]B. The results of this study indicatethat the leaf essential oil of C. subavenium is a potential anti-inflammatoryagent. The Conclusions section should clearly explain the main findings andimplications of the work, highlighting its importance and relevance.

[9] S.-Y. Kuo, T.-J. Hsieh, Y.-D. Wang, W.-L. Lo, Y.-R. Hsui, andC.Y. Chen, "Cytotoxic constituents from the leaves of Cinnamomumsubavenium," Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 56, no. 1, pp.97-101, 2008.

[10] R.-J. Lin, W.-L. Lo, Y.-D. Wang, and C.-Y. Chen, "Anovel cytotoxic monoterpenoid from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium,"Natural Product Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 22, no. 12,pp. 1055-1059, 2008.

[11] K.-H. Shen, E.-S. Lin, P.-L. Kuo, C.-Y. Chen, and Y.-L. Hsu,"Isolinderanolide B, a butanolide extracted from the stems of Cinnamomumsubavenium, inhibits proliferation of T24 human bladder cancer cells byblocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis," IntegrativeCancer Therapies, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 350-358, 2011.

[12] H.-M. Wang, C.-C. Chiu, P.-F. Wu, and C.-Y. Chen,"Subamolide E from Cinnamomum subavenium induces sub-G1 cell-cyclearrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis and reduces the migration ability ofhuman melanoma cells," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol.59, no. 15, pp. 8187-8192, 2011.

[13] C.-L. Ho, E. I.-C. Wang, X.-T. Wei, S.-Y. Lu, and Y.-C. Su,"Composition and bioactivities of the leaf essential oils of cinnamomumsubavenium Miq. From Taiwan," Journal of Essential Oil Research, vol.20, no. 4, pp. 328-334, 2008.

[20] C.-Y. Chen, W.-L. Yang, and Y.-R. Hsui, "A novelsesquiterpenoid from the roots of Cinnamomum subavenium," NaturalProduct Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 24, no. 5, pp.423-427, 2010.

Cinnamomum osmophloeum, an indigenous species of Taiwan, can be utilized for valuable products such as a food, a spice and a traditional Chinese medicine. This study compares the ribosomal DNA (nr DNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of C. osmophloeum to that of several other species with similar external morphology, such as Cinnamomum burmannii, Cinnamomum insularimontanum, Cinnamomum macrostemon and Cinnamomum subavenium. Phylogeny of ITS sequences shows that C. osmophloeum is more closely related to C. burmannii than the other species, while C. insularimontanum, C. macrostemon, and C. subavenium are phylogenetically relevant to each other. By comparing ITS sequence between C. osmophloeum and C. burmannii, specific primers were designed for the multiplex-PCR to differentiate them. Based on ITS sequence differences, all tested Cinnamomum spp. can be properly authenticated. A 125 bp band specific for C. osmophloeum and a 204-bp C. burmannii-specific band were successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the respective primers described above. The two species then can be identified at the molecular level according to the sizes of their respective PCR products as determined by gel electrophoresis. 041b061a72


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