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The intrinsic high processivity of the enzyme results in significant improvement in yield, speed, and sensitivity when compared with wild-type B-family DNA polymerases. In addition, the ability to amplify long targets, as well as GC- and AT-rich targets, is significantly improved. The enzyme is combined with a proprietary antibody that inactivates the enzyme until the first denaturation step. This prevents nonspecific amplification during reaction setup, increases sensitivity, and improves reaction efficiency.

Type I fluids are the thinnest of fluids. As such, they can be used on any aircraft, as they shear/blow off even at low speeds. They also have the shortest hold-over times (HOT) or estimated times of protection in active frost or freezing precipitation.

Type II and IV fluids add thickening agents to increase viscosity. The thickeners allow fluid to remain on the aircraft longer to absorb and melt the frost or freezing precipitation. This translates to longer HOT, but it also means a higher speed is required to shear off the fluid.

Type III fluids are relatively new and have properties in between Type I and Type II/IV fluids. Type III fluids also contain thickening agents and offer longer HOTs than Type I, but are formulated to shear off at lower speeds. They are designed specifically for small commuter-type aircraft, but work as well for larger aircraft.

Type I fluids are essentially de-icing fluids, but can also be used for anti-icing. Because they are not thickened, they will shear or blow off the airplane at relatively low airspeeds (60 knots). However, their low viscosity results in the shortest set of holdover times.

Type II fluids provide better protection against refreezing than Type I fluids, but require a minimum 100 knot rotation speed. They are applied when long elapse time is anticipated between de-icing and take-off.

Type III fluids have a viscosity higher than Type I fluids but much lower than Type II or IV fluids. Type III fluids were formulated for use on small commuter-type aircraft with take off rotation speeds that are 60 knots or higher, but they can also be used on aircraft with higher rotation speeds. Type III fluids, unlike Type II or IV fluids, can be used in a hand held sprayer as they do not require specialized low shearing application equipment.

Type IV fluids meet the same fluid specifications as Type II fluids, and have a significantly longer HOT. Therefore, SAE Type IV fluids should be used on aircraft with rotation speeds (Vr) above 100 knots when long elapse time is anticipated between de-icing and take-off. 153554b96e


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