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Luke Sanchez
Luke Sanchez

Aircraft Engines And Gas Turbines [HOT]


Aircraft Engines and Gas Turbines is widely used as a text in the United States and abroad, and has also become a standard reference for professionals in the aircraft engine industry. Unique in treating the engine as a complete system at increasing levels of sophistication, it covers all types of modern aircraft engines, including turbojets, turbofans, and turboprops, and also discusses hypersonic propulsion systems of the future. Performance is described in terms of the fluid dynamic and thermodynamic limits on the behavior of the principal components: inlets, compressors, combustors, turbines, and nozzles. Environmental factors such as atmospheric pollution and noise are treated along with performance. This new edition has been substantially revised to include more complete and up-to-date coverage of compressors, turbines, and combustion systems, and to introduce current research directions. The discussion of high-bypass turbofans has been expanded in keeping with their great commercial importance. Propulsion for civil supersonic transports is taken up in the current context. The chapter on hypersonic air breathing engines has been expanded to reflect interest in the use of scramjets to power the National Aerospace Plane. The discussion of exhaust emissions and noise and associated regulatory structures have been updated and there are many corrections and clarifications.




Aircraft engines and gas turbines



MTU's product portfolio extends beyond aircraft engines. Here, the company benefits significantly from the experience and expertise it has gained in its core business. MTU offers the full range of services for GE's LMTM series of industrial gas turbines - from developing, engineering and manufacturing parts and modules for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to support and maintenance.


The engineering and manufacturing division is specialized in the development, testing, design optimization and manufacturing of turbines, compressors and brush seals for OEMs. At MTU Maintenance Berlin-Brandenburg, IGTs are maintained and repaired in accordance with quality standards equivalent to those applied in aviation, which are among the most stringent in the world. MTU and its affiliates also operate Level II IGT service centers around the globe. Field service professionals can be on site within just 24 hours to provide support to customers, wherever they are in the world. MTU Power is the MTU Aero Engines brand for all services relating to gas turbines.


We are turbine experts. Our expertise ranges from developing, engineering and manufacturing parts and modules for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to aftermarket care for LM series aero-derivative gas turbines. As part of the MTU Aero Engines Group, we are at home in the aviation world, where the highest technological and quality standards are the norm.


All jet engines, which are also called gas turbines, work on the same principle. The engine sucks air in at the front with a fan. A compressor raises the pressure of the air. The compressor is made with many blades attached to a shaft. The blades spin at high speed and compress or squeeze the air. The compressed air is then sprayed with fuel and an electric spark lights the mixture. The burning gases expand and blast out through the nozzle, at the back of the engine. As the jets of gas shoot backward, the engine and the aircraft are thrust forward. As the hot air is going to the nozzle, it passes through another group of blades called the turbine. The turbine is attached to the same shaft as the compressor. Spinning the turbine causes the compressor to spin.


Turbine - The high-energy airflow coming out of the combustor goes into the turbine, causing the turbine blades to rotate. The turbines are linked by a shaft to turn the blades in the compressor and to spin the intake fan at the front. This rotation takes some energy from the high-energy flow that is used to drive the fan and the compressor. The gases produced in the combustion chamber move through the turbine and spin its blades. The turbines of the jet spin around thousands of times. They are fixed on shafts which have several sets of ball-bearing in between them.


American Samuel Langley made a model airplanes that were powered by steam engines. In 1896, he was successful in flying an unmanned airplane with a steam-powered engine, called the Aerodrome. It flew about 1 mile before it ran out of steam. He then tried to build a full sized plane, the Aerodrome A, with a gas powered engine. In 1903, it crashed immediately after being launched from a house boat.


A turboprop engine is a jet engine attached to a propeller. The turbine at the back is turned by the hot gases, and this turns a shaft that drives the propeller. Some small airliners and transport aircraft are powered by turboprops.


Like the turbojet, the turboprop engine consists of a compressor, combustion chamber, and turbine, the air and gas pressure is used to run the turbine, which then creates power to drive the compressor. Compared with a turbojet engine, the turboprop has better propulsion efficiency at flight speeds below about 500 miles per hour. Modern turboprop engines are equipped with propellers that have a smaller diameter but a larger number of blades for efficient operation at much higher flight speeds. To accommodate the higher flight speeds, the blades are scimitar-shaped with swept-back leading edges at the blade tips. Engines featuring such propellers are called propfans.


The ramjet is the most simple jet engine and has no moving parts. The speed of the jet "rams" or forces air into the engine. It is essentially a turbojet in which rotating machinery has been omitted. Its application is restricted by the fact that its compression ratio depends wholly on forward speed. The ramjet develops no static thrust and very little thrust in general below the speed of sound. As a consequence, a ramjet vehicle requires some form of assisted takeoff, such as another aircraft. It has been used primarily in guided-missile systems. Space vehicles use this type of jet.


To move an airplane through the air,we have to use some kind of propulsion systemto generate thrust. The most widely usedform of propulsion system for modern aircraft is the gasturbine engine. Turbine engines come in a variety of forms.


This page shows computer drawings of four different variations ofa gas turbine or jet engine. While each of the engines are different,they share some parts in common. Each ofthese engines have a combustion section(red), a compressor (cyan), a turbine(magenta) and an inlet and a nozzle(grey). The compressor, burner, and turbine are called thecoreof the engine, since all gas turbines have thesecomponents. The core is also referred to as the gas generatorsince the output of the core is hot exhaust gas. The gas is passedthrough a nozzle to produce thrust for the turbojet, while it is usedto drive the turbine (green) of the turbofan and turboprop engines.Because the compressor and turbine are linkedby the central shaft and rotate together, this group of parts iscalled the turbomachinery. The operation of theturbojet,afterburning turbojet,turbofan,and turboprop engines are described onseparate pages.


Because of their high power output and high thermal efficiency, gas turbine enginesare also used in a wide variety of applications not related to aeronautics. Connectingthe main shaft of the engine to an electro-magnet will generate electrical power. Gas turbinescan also be used to power ships, trucks and military tanks.In these applications, the main shaftis connected to a gear box (much like the turboprop) and the resulting power plant is calleda turboshaft engine.In the late 1960's, turboshaft powered race cars competed at the Indy 500.


The LM9000 is a 66 MW to 75 MW unit that operates at 43% simple cycle efficiency. Derived from the GE90 jet engine used on the Boeing 777, it can be throttled to adjust power output, and started or stopped without impacting maintenance intervals. Power is available in under 10 minutes. Key features include: Dual-fuel capability without water consumption, and maintenance intervals of up to 36,000 hours for the hot section and 72,000 hours for overhaul. It is said to meet 15ppm NOx emission requirements in gas operation, and can switch between different fuels at full load without interruption. Use cases include support to grids with growing renewable sources, power industrial needs, peaking power for hot days or as reliable baseload to an isolated power island. It is also attracting interest for LNG compression and barge applications. The LM9000 configuration can be laid out to minimize its area footprint for maximum power density. Coupled with its aero core, it can survive the changing environments of a barge while providing maximum power in a space-constrained area. GE will begin shipping the first LM9000 gas turbines in 2019.


The LM2500 is an aeroderivative based on the CF6 aircraft engine. Introduced in 1971, it has three models with multiple configurations and output ranging from 22 MW to 37 MW. Water injected and dry combustor options are available. With more than 90 million operating hours across 2,300 units, the LM2500 is the most widely used aeroderivative GT. It is popular in mechanical drive and offshore power generation applications, as well as CHP and district heating.


Siemens has renamed the entire Rolls-Royce aeroderivative turbine line to align with the latest Siemens naming conventions. The Industrial 501-K, for example, is now the Siemens SGT-A05 (p. 81, Turbomachinery 2018 Handbook). More than 1,600 of these GTs have been supplied for industrial use to 40 countries. They have accumulated 110 million operating hours since their introduction in 1963. The SGT A05 was originally based on the T-56 turboprop, used in the Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules transport, E2C Hawkeye, P-3 Orion and other aircraft. Features include lightweight modular construction, ease of field repair, and use of multiple fuels. With an output between 3.9 and 6.4 MW, the A05 is used in applications, such as co-generation, offshore platforms and emergency power. Single-shaft and two-shaft versions are available. Steam injection can be adjusted to meet varying process steam or electrical requirements, depending on the application. 041b061a72


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