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Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are disabling and are associated with the early onset of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Little is known regarding the incidence rate of first-time noncontact ACL injuries sustained during athletic events and how they are independently influenced by level of competition, type of sport, and the participant's sex.


Hypothesis: Level of competition (college or high school), type of sport (soccer, basketball, lacrosse, field hockey, football, rugby, volleyball), and the athlete's sex independently influence the incidence rate of first-time noncontact ACL injuries.


Methods: Between fall 2008 and spring 2012, first-time noncontact ACL injury data were collected from 8 colleges and 18 high schools across 7 sports. Athlete exposure was computed retrospectively using team rosters and numbers of scheduled practices and games. Injury incidence rates (IRs) were computed per 1000 athlete exposures. The independent effects of level of competition, sport, and sex on ACL injury risk were estimated by Poisson regression.


Results: Colleges reported 48 ACL injuries with 320,719 athlete exposures across all sports studied (IR = 0.150 per 1000 person-days), while high schools reported 53 injuries with 873,057 athlete exposures (IR = 0.061). After adjustment for differences in sport and sex, college athletes had a significantly higher injury risk than did high school athletes (adjusted relative risk [RR], 2.38; 95% CI, 1.55-3.54). The overall IR for female athletes was 0.112 compared with 0.063 for males. After adjustment for sport and level of play, females were more than twice as likely to have a first-time ACL injury compared with males (RR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.34-3.27). With lacrosse as the reference group, risk of first-time noncontact ACL injury was significantly higher for soccer players (RR, 1.77) and for rugby players (RR, 2.23), independent of level of play and sex.


Conclusion: An athlete's risk of having a first-time noncontact ACL injury is independently influenced by level of competition, the participant's sex, and type of sport, and there are no interactions between their effects. Female college athletes have the highest risk of having a first-time noncontact ACL injury among the groups studied.


Background: Inversion ankle trauma is disabling, yet little is known regarding the incidence rate of first-time ankle sprains and how it is influenced by factors including sex, level of competition, and sport.


Hypothesis: The incidence rates of first-time ankle ligament sprains are influenced by sex, level of competition (high school vs college), and type of sports participation (basketball, soccer, lacrosse, and field hockey).


Conclusion: In this study of first-time ankle sprains, for most sports, the incidence rate of inversion injury is less than 1 per 1000 days of exposure to sport, a value lower than previously reported. Among female athletes, ankle injury is associated with type of sport. Risk is highest for female basketball athletes, who are at significantly greater risk than male basketball athletes and female lacrosse athletes. The risk of first-time ankle injury is similar for high school and college-level athletes.


A new question about citizenship on the 2020 census form is in the headlines these days, but the U.S. Census Bureau also plans other changes for the next national count. Among them: For the first time, the agency will add specific check boxes for same-sex couples to identify themselves, and it will ask people who check the white or black race boxes to say more about their national origins.


PRINCETON, NJ -- For the first time in Gallup's tracking of the issue, a majority of Americans (53%) believe same-sex marriage should be recognized by the law as valid, with the same rights as traditional marriages. The increase since last year came exclusively among political independents and Democrats. Republicans' views did not change.


This year's nine-percentage-point incr




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